Regev – Jojoba Israel
is very similar to the natural oil our skin produces, though it is
technically a liquid wax produced from the seed of the Jojoba
(Simmondsia chinensis) shrub.
Usually, it is pressed but can be solvent extracted. For better
stability, it is best to use Jojoba oil that has not been decolorised.
Botanist H. F. Link recorded the Jojoba plant in 1822 in Baja
California and named it after a fellow British botanist/explorer, T. W.
Jojoba oil is naturally moisturising,
healing, and beneficial for all skin types. It is an excellent scalp
treatment. The best claim to fame for Jojoba oil is that it has been
accepted as a substitute for sperm whale oil, formerly often used in
the manufacture of cosmetics (the US Government banned whaling in the
It is the best oil for all skin
types. It nourishes the skin and is rich in Vitamin E and minerals. It
is very good for inflamed skin presenting as psoriasis and eczema.
Jojoba oil comes from a desert plant that survives heat and drought
with its own built-in survival system.
The pores of the plant seal over with
its wax like substance, which reduces evaporation of moisture.
Jojoba oil is harvested from the bean
of the plant. In our products, Jojoba is used for its ability to lay
down a coating on the skin or scalp that attracts and retains moisture.
It is thought to also regulate the flow of sebum, which in beneficial
for many hair and scalp problems. Jojoba lubricates the hair shaft,
helps prevent split ends and has been found to help the condition of
A little bit of history. It was
recorded as early as the 18th Century that Indians in Baja California
were aware of the special properties of the Jojoba plant, and used its
oil for a range of cosmetics and medical treatments such as treating
skin cancer and wounds. They also used it as a hair restorer and even
to induce labour in childbirth. Naturally, Jojoba oil aroused the interest
of the modern cosmetic and medical industries all over the world.
Simmondsia chinensis produces a
marvellously consistent mixture of liquid esters. Extraction of Jojoba
oil from seeds that are in optimal condition results in a very pure and
clean initial product that requires minimal processing and/or refining
producing a very high quality, consistent end product.
After mechanical extraction, Jojoba
is generally screened to remove tiny pieces of sediment called “footes”
and then filtered. The Jojoba is then placed into an insulated
processing tank, where it is pasteurised to further ensure product
safety and quality. Four grades of Jojoba can then be produced:
1 Pure, natural, golden grade.
2 Refined and bleached grade.
3 Decolorised/deodorised grade.
4 Molecular distilled grade.
All grades are also produced as
organic grade if the source of seeds is
recognised and approved as an organic supplier. With the pure, natural, golden grade, no further processing is needed after
filtration and pasteurisation, although for some enduse applications removal of phospholipids is preferable.
The Jojoba is simply packaged for storage and shipment. This grade of
Jojoba has a golden-yellow colour (Lovibond of approximately 50-60 Yellow, 3.0-5.0 Red). Organoleptically, this grade has a very slight, pleasant
odour peculiar to Jojoba. From the early 1980s refined and bleached grade Jojoba has also been available. The colour
bodies are removed with bleaching earths and filtration. Various
degrees of decolorisation can be attained by this method with Lovibond
readings that are typically between those of pure golden Jojoba and
decolorised/deodorised grade. This grade of
Jojoba retains a slight odour. More recently, many cosmetic
manufacturers are requiring a colourless and odourless Jojoba for fine
cosmetic formulations with delicate colour and scent schemes.
The decolorised/deodorised grade of
Jojoba was developed specifically for these applications, but can be used in a more diverse
range of cosmetic products. It is deodorised under an effective vacuum
at certain “retention” times and temperatures that do not modify the
liquid wax esters. The organoleptic odour characteristics of this grade are
virtually eliminated and colour is reduced to almost water-clear with
Lovibond colours of = 1.0 Yellow and = 0.2
Red. Molecular distilled grade Jojoba is produced in only
minimal quantities today. Molecular distillation is very expensive and losses
are considered high. In years past, this grade
was produced for formulations requiring an odourless and colourless
Jojoba. With great strides in refining technology, this expensive
physically refined grade is being replaced by
the more economical decolorised/deodorised grade the characteristics of
which, on the whole, are not significantly distinguishable from
those of molecular distilled Jojoba.
Jojoba in cosmetics
Many of the most effective
ingredients for skin care formulations are those with chemical
composition and physical properties similar to the skin’s own surface
layers. Since Jojoba is completely miscible with sebum, when it is applied to the skin, a very thin, non-greasy lipoid
layer of Jojoba and sebum forms. This partially porous layer provides
exceptional trans-epidermal respiration and moisture control. Unlike
greasy occlusive materials such as petrolatum, mineral oils and some
lanolin products, Jojoba provides an absolutely non-tacky and
non-greasy, dry emolliency.
At the same time Jojoba significantly
reduces transepidermal water loss without totally blocking
transpiration of gases and water vapour. This function is enhanced by
the kinking at Jojoba’s cis configuration that helps avoid tight
packing of hydrocarbon chains. Jojoba oil serves as an excellent
moisturising agent with exceptional spread and lubricanty, and leaves a
rich velvety non-oily feel on the skin while retarding water loss and
enhancing the flexibility and suppleness of the skin.
Through continued research work,
there is growing evidence that Jojoba quickly permeates the skin and
exhibits softening ability from within. Pharmacodynamic studies of the
penetrability of lipids have shown that there are six general factors
that influence the rate of permeation into the stratum corneum:
Viscosity: low viscosity oil poses
higher rates than high viscosity oils. Jojoba oil has a low viscosity.
Degree of unsaturation: unsaturated
oils exhibit higher rates of permeation.
Saponification value: the lower
saponification value, the higher the rate. Jojoba oil has a low
Carbon chain length: the shorter the
chain length, the higher the rate.
Lecithin content: the lesser the
amount of lecithin in the oil, the greater the rate of penetration.
Jojoba has no lecithin.
Molecular configuration: straight chain and branched
esters penetrate better than do triglyceride oils.
Jojoba oil is comprised of
monounsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty alcohols. It has
a comparatively low saponification value and contains little to no
lecithin. The iodine value is a measure of unsaturation specific
gravity that indicates the heavy feel of an oil.
Percutaneous absorption studies at
the University of Michigan demonstrated that Jojoba is quickly absorbed
into the skin. Absorption is apparently via the transappendegeal mechanism and occurs through the pores
and hair follicles. Additionally, because Jojoba is rapidly absorbed,
the pores and hair follicles can remain open and thus maintain their
proper functioning ability. From the pores and hair follicles, Jojoba
diffuses into the corneal layer of the skin probably via a
pilosebaceous mechanism. Viscoelastic diametric tests have registered a
37% increase in skin compliance only 30
minutes after application.
Moisturising efficacy experiments
have demonstrated that Jojoba can effectively reduce superficial facial
lines by 26, 28, and 11% after one, four and
eight hours respectively. Gas bearing electrodynamometer studies have
shown that “neat” Jojoba, and Jojoba incorporated in cosmetic
formulations, significantly increases skin softness well in excess of
eight hours. In short, it appears that Jojoba effectively moisturises and
softens the skin by a dual action of forming a lipid layer which is
partially occlusive and by the diffusion of Jojoba into the
intercellular spaces of the stratum corneum to soften this tissue.
The incorporation of Jojoba into the
oil phase of skin care formulations is a straightforward process.
Jojoba oil has a required hydrophilic/lipophilic balance number (HLB)
of approximately 6. It is considered compatible with
almost all anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and nonionic cosmetic
Not only can multi-functional Jojoba
be considered as a replacement for mineral oil, triglycerides, lanolin,
squalane and synthetic esters, but it can bring a whole new level of functionality to products.
Jojoba and hair care
Jojoba is an extremely functional
ingredient in hair and scalp preparations. Many scalp related problems
are caused by a hardened build-up of sebum that clogs the hair
follicles and may cause some types of scaling. If this hardened
build-up is not removed, it can eventually obstruct the hair follicles
ability to function properly, which can lead to a loss of the hair
shaft, and ultimately, death of the follicle. Jojoba rapidly penetrates
down to the scalp and hair shaft, and readily loosens and dissolves
this hardened build-up. The scalp and hair follicles are left clean and
free to continue their normal function. Jojoba is also an excellent
soil solubilising agent which can remove sticky build-up on the hair
from many modern hair preparations as well as airborne particulates.
Jojoba will leave the hair clean and supple.
Jojoba exhibits a matchless
keratoplastic effect which leaves the hair shimmering and brings out
the hair’s natural colour overtones and brilliance. Jojoba can be used
with confidence in most hair preparations at a level ranging from 0.5-3%. One of the essential functions of lipids on
the hair is moisturising to improve texture and manageability.
Keeping the hair fully hydrated is a
guarantee of manageability, softness and shine.
This is exactly what Jojoba oil does: it conditions the hair, and
prevents it from becoming brittle and dull when exposed to unfavourable
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